Tag: Science

Gadget (computer science) – Wikipedia

In computational complexity theory, a gadget is a subset of a problem instance that simulates the behavior of one of the fundamental units of a different computational problem. Gadgets are typically used to construct reductions from one computational problem to another, as part of proofs of NP-completeness or other types of computational hardness. The component design technique is a method for constructing reductions by using gadgets.[1]

Szabó (2009) traces the use of gadgets to a 1954 paper in graph theory by W. T. Tutte, in which Tutte provided gadgets for reducing the problem of finding a subgraph with given degree constraints to a perfect matching problem. However, the “gadget” terminology has a later origin, and does not appear in Tutte’s paper.[2][3]

Example[edit]

NP-completeness reduction from 3-satisfiability to graph 3-coloring. The gadgets for variables and clauses are shown on the upper and lower left, respectively;
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Computer & Information Science & Engineering

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Main Science and Technology Indicators

 

Last update: 2019/2 (February 28, 2020)
Next update: 2020/1 (July 2020)

Main Science and Technology Indicators full database

Short address for this page: http://oe.cd/msti

 

This page presents key highlights from the latest MSTI data.

 Download a detailed highlights note

 

Research and development (R&D) intensity (expenditure on R&D as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) in the OECD area rose from 2.37% in 2017 to 2.40% in 2018, according to the latest data published on February 28 in the OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators (MSTI) database. This increase, which follows a similar rise between 2016 and 2017, was driven by faster real growth in R&D expenditure (+3.8%) compared to GDP (+2.3%). The OECD area has not seen comparable growth in R&D expenditure over a two-year period since before the 2008 global financial crisis. Growth in R&D intensity was widespread across the majority of OECD countries in 2018, with the

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Science & Technology | Science Mission Directorate

The role of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) is to enable NASA to achieve its science goals in the context of the national science agenda. SMD’s strategic decisions regarding future missions and scientific pursuits are guided by Agency goals, input from the science community, and a commitment to preserve a balanced program across the major science disciplines. Toward this end, each of the four SMD science divisions—Heliophysics, Earth Science, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics — develops fundamental science questions upon which to base future research and mission programs. Often the breakthrough science required to answer these questions requires significant technological innovation— e.g., instruments or platforms with capabilities beyond the current state of the art. SMD’s targeted technology investments fill technology gaps, enabling NASA to build the challenging and complex missions that accomplish groundbreaking science.

Technology Highlights

Balloon-borne Investigation Provides First Simultaneous Measurements of Crucial Coronal Parameters

An observational technique first proposed

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Technology for Kids – Free Games, Activities, Experiments, Science Online

Technology for kids

Learn about technologyStep into the future and discover technology for kids with our cool range of experiments, free games, science fair projects, fun quizzes, interesting facts, amazing videos, worksheets and more!

Learn about robots, computers, cell phones, engineering and all kinds of interesting technology topics. As well as activities for children, there are also lesson plans for teachers, ideas for parents and free teaching resources for anyone interested in technology and learning about science online.

 

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Science for Kids
Technology games for kids

Enjoy our fun technology games and improve your knowledge of this great subject. Learn why electricity circuits are important to modern gadgets and have fun testing the properties of different materials. These technology and engineering topics will give you a great base to work from.

Take the challenge and see if you can complete the interactive activities while learning a thing or two on the way.

Electricity circuits games

Electricity Circuits

Electricity circuits play an important

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Masters Program in Computer Science

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The Masters Program in Computer Science (MPCS) offers a comprehensive and professionally-oriented computer science education that combines the foundations of computer science with the applied and in-demand skills necessary for careers in technology. The MPCS is especially well suited for students interested in Data Analytics, High Performance Computing, Information Security, Mobile Computing and Software Engineering.

The coursework in our program represents a realistic balance between CS foundational theory and applied technical courses. Core classes include Programming, Algorithms and Systems coursework. Electives include new and innovative courses to keep up with the fast-paced world of technology including courses in Software Engineering, Big Data, Data Analytics, Machine Learning, High Performance Computing, Mobile Application Development, Web Development, Cloud Computing and Information Security.

What sets our program apart is our ability to tailor coursework to the career goals and backgrounds of our students. For students that do not have a background in math or

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Gadget Science – Educational Science Projects and Experiments

How to turn a lesson into halloween magic

You’ve seen it–that magical moment when you students just “clicked” with your lesson. They were engaged, even if just for a few brief moments, instead of daydreaming or wishing they could be texting their friends.

Adapting your lesson to a Halloween theme is more likely to engage them. Kids are already fascinated by Halloween. Connect your science lesson to it, and they will be more engaged and interested.

The holiday becomes a catalyst for engagement.

How to adapt your lessons

Three simple steps:

Step 1. Look at the lessons you have planned for the next two weeks.

Are there any demonstrations you will do? A small modification may be all you need to turn it into a Halloween-based science lesson.

Step 2. Look for connections to Halloween: pumpkins, smoke, goo, colors, or mixtures.

Pumpkins

Can you do the experiment inside a pumpkin? I’ve seen the classic baking powder + vinegar

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A science and technology timeline

Date Invention or discovery Articles on Explain that stuff Prehistory

4–5 billion years ago

Sun starts to produce energy.

Solar cells
Energy

10 million years ago. Humans make the first tools from stone, wood,
antlers, and bones. Tools and machines

1–2 million years ago

Humans discover fire.

Biofuels
Candles
Car engines
Jet engines

25,000– 50,000 BCE Humans first wear clothes. Biomimetic clothing 10,000 BCE Earliest boats are constructed. Ships and boats 8000– 9000 BCE Beginnings of human settlements and agriculture. Biofuels
Water 6000– 7000 BCE Hand-made bricks first used for construction in the Middle East. Brick (ceramics) Ancient times 4000 BCE Iron used for the first time in decorative ornaments. Iron and steel 3500– 5000 BCE Glass is made by people for the first time. Glass 3500 BCE Humans invent the wheel. Tools and machines
Wheels and axles 3000 BCE First written languages are developed by the Sumerian people of
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Computer Information Systems vs Computer Science

Computer Information Systems vs Computer Science Online DegreesThese days there are almost TOO many choices for online Computer Science and IT degrees. Which tech-savvy degree should you choose? What’s the difference between a Computer Information Systems vs Computer Science major? IS there really any difference? If so, which one is best for which career paths?

If you’re having trouble choosing an IT degree path, start by asking yourself which of the following three career questions interests you most:  

1. Why does the technology work?
2. How does the technology work?
3. What technology would work the best?

The question you find yourself most drawn to is a clue to which type of online degree you’d prefer when it comes to Computer Information Systems vs Computer Science.

Many of the online IT degrees offered today are related to Computer Science, Information Technology or Computer Information Systems. Each major shares much in common, but each also tends to focus

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Computer Science Student Resources | Computer Science Student Resources

Includes a basic math refresher, a queuing analysis primer, and links to numerous math sites.

Links to important collections of papers, technical reports, and bibliographies.

Advice and guidance for solving homework problems, writing technical reports, and preparing technical presentations.

A variety of useful documents and links.

Useful links and documents for those considering a career in computer science.

You should take your mind off your work once in a while.

A variety of interesting documents and links to other subjects.

All my books and other Pearson books available via this Web site at a greater discount than online bookstores. Go to discount book purchase.

This site provides information and links for computer science students. It also contains a number of documents that you may find useful in your ongoing computer science education. If you have any suggestions for site content, please email me by clicking on “contact me”, below.
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